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A horn antenna is used for the transmission and reception of microwave signals. It derives its name from the characteristic flared appearance. The flared portion can be square, rectangular, or conical. The maximum radiation and response corresponds with the axis of the horn. In this respect, the antenna resembles an acoustic horn. It is usually fed with a wave guide.
In order to function properly, a horn antenna must be a certain minimum size relative to the wavelength of the incoming or outgoing electromagneticfield. If the horn is too small or the wavelength is too large (the frequency is too low), the antenna will not work efficiently.
Horn antennas are commonly used as the active element in a dish antenna. The horn is pointed toward the center of the dish reflector. The use of a horn, rather than a dipole antenna or any other type of antenna, at the focal point of the dish minimizes loss of energy (leakage) around the edges of the dish reflector. It also minimizes the response of the antenna to unwanted signals not in the favored direction of the dish.
Horn antennas are used all by themselves in short-range radar systems, particularly those used by law-enforcement personnel to measure the speeds of approaching or retreating vehicles.
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