SISO (single input, single output) refers to a wireless communications system in which one antenna is used at the source (transmitter) and one antenna is used at the destination (receiver).
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SISO is the simplest antenna technology. In some environments, SISO systems are vulnerable to problems caused by multipath effects. When an electromagnetic field (EM field) is met with obstructions such as hills, canyons, buildings, and utility wires, the wavefronts are scattered, and thus they take many paths to reach the destination. The late arrival of scattered portions of the signal causes problems such as fading, cut-out (cliff effect), and intermittent reception (picket fencing). In a digital communications system, it can cause a reduction in data speed and an increase in the number of errors.
In order to minimize or eliminate problems caused by multipath wave propagation, smart antenna technology is used. There are three forms of smart antenna, known as SIMO (single input, multiple output), MISO (multiple input, single output), and MIMO (multiple input, multiple output).